|ERIC ED318927: A Comparison of Transpersonal, Wholistic, and Other Major Counseling Theories. - ERIC|
Transpersonal Counseling and Wholistic Counseling are two relatively new approaches to psychotherapy. Transpersonal counseling is based on the work of transpersonal psychologists who believe that there are potential cognitive, moral, and motivational stages of development beyond those reached by most adults. It suggests a "fourth force" in psychology in addition to psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and humanistic forces...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Counseling Techniques; Counseling Theories; Psychotherapy
|ERIC ED314434: Why Generalizability Theory Yields Better Results than Classical Test Theory. - ERIC|
Generalizability theory provides a technique for accurately estimating the reliability of measurements. The power of this theory is based on the simultaneous analysis of multiple sources of error variances. Equally important, generalizability theory considers relationships among the sources of measurement error. Just as multivariate inferential statistics consider relationships among variables that univariate statistics cannot detect, generalizability theory considers relationships of error meas...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Generalizability Theory; Test Reliability; Test Theory
|ERIC ED308527: Study of a Riot: The Effect of News Values and Competition on Coverage by Two Competing Daily Newspapers. - ERIC|
A study examined the effect of news values, source types, and competition on coverage of a 1988 urban riot in Shreveport, Louisiana. The final editions of "The Times" of Shreveport and the "Shreveport Journal" which appeared over the four-day period of a riot were analyzed and the content of each story was categorized. Results indicated: (1) both newspapers used more "unknown" than "known" sources; (2) the larger circulation paper--"The Times"--used a greater diversity of sources than the smalle...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Competition; Content Analysis; News Reporting; Newspapers
|ERIC ED319754: Multiple Comparison Procedures when Population Variances Differ. - ERIC|
A review of the literature on multiple comparison procedures suggests several alternative approaches for comparing means when population variances differ. These include: (1) the approach of P. A. Games and J. F. Howell (1976); (2) C. W. Dunnett's C confidence interval (1980); and (3) Dunnett's T3 solution (1980). These procedures control the overall risk of a Type I error experimentwise at approximately the nominal significance level and have the best statistical power among alternative solution...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Research Methodology; Statistical Analysis
|ERIC ED310794: A Socio-Semiotic Way of Looking at Cross-Cultural Lexicology. - ERIC|
The first section of this paper outlines the aims of the socio-semiotic way of looking at cross-cultural lexicology, including its ability to affect research methodology, objects, and goals, and argues that it is in accordance with an integral concept of linguistics. In the second section, the socio-semiotic approach is contrasted with the system-oriented, knowledge-oriented, and behavior-oriented views of lexicology...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Cross Cultural Studies; Lexicology; Methods; Semiotics
|ERIC ED387515: Some Advantages of Controlling for False Discoveries in Multiple Comparisons. - ERIC|
Multiple comparison procedures for controlling familywise Type I error and the false discovery rate are described and compared, including the traditional Bonferroni correction, a sequential (step-up) Bonferroni procedure (Hochberg, 1988), and a sequential false discovery rate procedure proposed by Benjamini and Hochberg (1995). Motivation for formally considering the false discovery rate is discussed...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Hypothesis Testing; Simulation; Statistical Analysis
|ERIC ED294916: Contrast Analysis for Scale Differences. - ERIC|
Research on tests for scale equality have focused exclusively on an overall test statistic and have not examined procedures for identifying specific differences in multiple group designs. The present study compares four contrast analysis procedures for scale differences in the single factor four-group design: (1) Tukey HSD; (2) Kramer-Tukey; (3) Games-Howell; and (4) Dunnett T-3. Two data transformations are considered under several combinations of variance difference, sample sizes, and distribu...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Sample Size; Scaling; Statistical Analysis
|ERIC ED296376: Dropping vs. Restarting: A Dynamic Analysis of Two Newspaper Subscribing Behaviors. - ERIC|
In an effort to help describe and explain why people do not read and subscribe to newspapers, a study built on previous research by adding two new contributions: (1) reliance on a four-wave panel data-set rather than on a one-shot survey; and (2) use of a dynamic modeling procedure rather than cross-sectional analysis. The problem with previous studies of newspaper subscribing that use static comparison, is that the technique may be sufficient for descriptive purposes but can do little beyond th...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Longitudinal Studies; Media Research; Models; Newspapers
|ERIC ED363398: The Influence of Ethnicity on Grandparent-Grandchild Relations Subsequent to the Divorce of an Adult Child. - ERIC|
The study reported here addressed two major issues: (1) what role does ethnicity play in the changing roles and perceptions of grandmothers subsequent to the divorce of an adult child; and (2) what is the effect of this changing role upon the grandmothers' perceived contact with their grandchildren. Subjects were 47 grandmothers from Italian communities in Montreal, Canada. The control group consisted of 27 grandmothers with a married adult child; the experimental group consisted of 20 grandmoth...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Cultural Background; Cultural Influences; Divorce; Ethnicity; Foreign Countries; Grandchildren; Grandparents
|ERIC ED308168: An Analysis of the Comparability of Teacher Salaries to the Earnings of Other College Graduates in the Southeast: 1988 Update. Research Report 08-008. - ERIC|
Despite recent increases in teacher salaries, the earnings of teachers as compared to those of other college graduates in the Southeast have changed little in the last five years. This report compares the average annual earnings of teachers to the average annual earnings of college graduates in full-time, salaried nonteaching positions in the six states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) served by the Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; College Graduates; Comparative Analysis; Elementary Secondary Education; Salary Wage Differentials; Statistical Analysis; Teacher Salaries
|ERIC ED306533: Beliefs and Religious Behaviors in Fundamentalist Christian and College Students. - ERIC|
It has been suggested that current measures used in investigating religion are a mixture of questions concerning values, beliefs, and behaviors and are mixed in their factorial purity. Another difficulty is that there is a relative lack of research on different religions and their specific beliefs. The present study utilized a scale of homogeneous focus in order to delineate the beliefs and religious activities of a group of fundamentalistic Christians as compared to a control sample of college ...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Behavior; Beliefs; Christianity; College Students; Comparative Analysis; Higher Education; Religion; Student Attitudes
|ERIC ED385741: Job-Entry Typewriting Speeds of Three Different Levels of Secretaries at a Large Public University. - ERIC|
A study examined the job-entry typewriting speeds of all 185 secretaries employed at East Tennessee State University, which was selected as an institution representative of large public universities with a college of medicine. The secretaries' scores on the timed typing test that they took at the time of their application for their present positions (in one of three secretarial levels) served as the study data set...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Employment Level; Employment Qualifications; Entry Workers; Higher Education; Public Colleges; Secretaries; Typewriting
|ERIC ED311489: Comparing an Economic Model of News Selection with One Based on Professional Norms in Local Television Newscasts. - ERIC|
A study compared two models (economic and journalistic) of news selection in an attempt to explain what becomes news. The news gathering and news decisionmaking processes of three western United States network-affiliated television stations, one each in a small, medium, and large market, were observed during 12 "typical" days. Questionnaires analyzing every story on the premier evening newscast were distributed on four of the days...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Case Studies; Comparative Analysis; Decision Making; Economic Research; Journalism; Media Research; Models; Norms; Television
|ERIC ED359554: Art Therapy: What Does It Have To Say to Writing Teachers? - ERIC|
The connections between art therapy and the teaching of writing are many. The process of art therapy is essentially art making followed by talk--a process that parallels the process of writing and reflecting about writing that is encouraged in writing classrooms. It is a process aimed at self discovery and consciousness, whether in a writing classroom or in art therapy. Students, writing about their writing, indicate that they are opened to feeling and often surprised by insight...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Art Therapy; Comparative Analysis; Higher Education; Self Expression; Student Reaction; Writing Instruction; Writing Teachers
|ERIC ED339716: Exploratory Multivariate Analysis of Variance: Contrasts and Variables. - ERIC|
The contribution of individual variables to overall multivariate significance in a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is investigated using a combination of canonical discriminant analysis and Roy-Bose simultaneous confidence intervals. Difficulties with this procedure are discussed, and its advantages are illustrated using examples based on the following four data sets with different characteristics: (1) one-way MANOVA with three dependent variables and five subjects in each treatment; ...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Correlation; Discriminant Analysis; Mathematical Models; Multivariate Analysis; Research Methodology; Statistical Significance
|ERIC ED315439: Alternative Logics for Estimating whether Research Results Will Generalize. - ERIC|
Three procedures for evaluating the sampling specificity of results are reviewed. These procedures are Tukey's jacknife technique, Efron's bootstrap technique, and cross-validation methods. The jacknife technique uses different subsamples derived from the original total data set to provide empirical estimates of the generalizability of effect sizes. The bootstrap technique estimates the statistical accuracy of effect size estimates and creates a megafile by copying the original data sample over ...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Effect Size; Estimation (Mathematics); Evaluation Methods; Generalizability Theory; Methods Research; Sampling
|ERIC ED319801: Competing Strategies for Planned Orthogonal Contrasts. - ERIC|
Two strategies, derived from J. P. Schaffer (1986), were compared as tests of significance for a complete set of planned orthogonal contrasts. The procedures both maintain an experimentwise error rate at or below alpha, but differ in the manner in which they test the contrast with the largest observed difference. One approach proceeds directly to the test of the contrast with the largest difference at a reduced significance level...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Hypothesis Testing; Monte Carlo Methods; Research Methodology; Simulation; Statistical Significance
|ERIC ED334022: Maternal Responsiveness to Infants in Three Societies: The United States, France, and Japan. - ERIC|
Characteristics of maternal responsiveness in interactions between mothers and infants in New York City, Paris, and Tokyo are compared. A total of 72 primiparous mothers and their 5-month-olds were observed at home. Of the dyads, 24 were Caucasian American, 24 Caucasian French, and 24 Oriental Japanese. Observations were conducted in an identical manner in all three cities. Mothers and infants were videotaped in naturalistic interaction for 45 minutes...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Cross Cultural Studies; Cultural Differences; Foreign Countries; Infants; Mothers; Parent Child Relationship
|ERIC ED370459: Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans. - ERIC|
This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship between plan design and cost, and components of plan design including benefit level, waiting periods, length of elimination period, definitions of disability, parti...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Employees; Fringe Benefits; Higher Education; Insurance; Insurance Companies; School Policy; Workers Compensation
|ERIC ED314657: Personality Structure of Batterers and Nonbatterers: Qualitative and Quantitative Differences. - ERIC|
This study was conducted to compare sufficiently large samples of male batterers (N=99) and help-seeking nonbatterers (N=71) on factor structure of the eight personality scales on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) and MCMI profiles within similar subgroup types. The groups were matched on age, education range, marital status, and race. Factor analyses of the eight MCMI personality subscales for the two groups revealed three factors for each group, accounting for 80% of the variance...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Battered Women; Comparative Analysis; Family Violence; Males; Personality Traits; Psychological Characteristics
|ERIC ED351371: L-Scaling: An Update. - ERIC|
L-scaling is introduced as a technique for determining the weights in weighted averages or scaled scores for T joint observations on K variables. The technique is so named because of its formal resemblance to the Leontief matrix of mathematical economics. L-scaling is compared to several widely-used procedures for data reduction, and the discussion proceeds in terms of descriptive statistics since the various techniques have sampling properties that are either unknown or intractable...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Equations (Mathematics); Mathematical Models; Multivariate Analysis; Sampling; Statistical Inference; Weighted Scores
|ERIC ED372458: Gorgias on Madison Avenue: Sophistry and the Rhetoric of Advertising. - ERIC|
Using sophistic theory and focusing on intersections in the practice and reception of sophistry and advertising, a study analyzed a contemporary advertising campaign. A number of extrinsic similarities between sophistic and advertising rhetoric exist: their commercial basis, their popular reception as dishonest speech, and the reception of both as nonetheless entertaining. Besides surface parallels, there are also intrinsic correlations...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Advertising; Comparative Analysis; Discourse Analysis; Higher Education; Persuasive Discourse; Theory Practice Relationship
|ERIC ED354658: A Comparative Study of Sex Knowledge among Hearing and Deaf College Freshmen. - ERIC|
This study was designed to determine whether there are disparities in sex knowledge between hearing college freshmen at the University of Maryland (N=75) and Loyola College in Baltimore (N=128) and deaf college freshmen at Gallaudet University (N=38). The Sex Knowledge Inventory was administered along with the Knowledge portion of the Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test. The Sex Knowledge Inventory measured knowledge of such topics as masturbation, homosexuality, reproduction, birth control, anatomy...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; College Freshmen; College Students; Comparative Analysis; Deafness; Higher Education; Knowledge Level; Sexuality; Test Validity
|ERIC ED365706: Type I Error Rates for Welch's Test and James's Second-Order Test under Nonnormality and Inequality of Variance when There Are Two Groups. - ERIC|
Type I error rates were estimated for three tests that compare means by using data from two independent samples: the independent samples t test, Welch's approximate degrees of freedom test, and James's second order test. Type I error rates were estimated for skewed distributions, equal and unequal variances, equal and unequal sample sizes, and a range of total sample sizes. Welch's test and James's test have very similar Type I error rates and tend to control the Type I error rate as well or bet...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Equations (Mathematics); Estimation (Mathematics); Mathematical Models; Sample Size
|ERIC ED333858: Examining Constructs of Highlighting Using Two Modes: Paper versus Computer. - ERIC|
This study examined the constructs of a study skill--highlighting--to determine whether the constructs for highlighting in a paper mode would be the same as highlighting in a computer mode. Constructs are defined as the underlying processes that are elicited in an experimental setting and that provide a basis for explaining the relations among the outcomes which are dependent upon subjects, stimulus materials, administration procedures, and scoring procedures and criteria...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Computer Assisted Testing; Higher Education; Intermode Differences; Learning Theories; Study Skills
|ERIC ED380769: Improving Conventional Spelling through the Use of Words in Context versus Words in Isolation. - ERIC|
A study investigated whether students learning via a "whole-part-whole" approach to spelling would achieve at a higher level than the control sample learning conventionally. In suburban New Jersey, one class of 17 first-grade students was taught spelling in a conventional manner, with words introduced in isolation and then assessed in a weekly spelling test. Another class of 21 first-grade students was introduced to words in a whole-part-whole lesson format, in which they were exposed to specifi...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Context Clues; Grade 1; Instructional Effectiveness; Primary Education; Spelling; Spelling Instruction
|ERIC ED339719: Toward a Model of Knowledge Structure and a Comparative Analysis of Knowledge Structure Measurement Techniques. - ERIC|
A proposed model of human knowledge structure was studied, beginning with an operational definition of knowledge structure. A battery of available knowledge structure measurement techniques was used to detect structure differences between two experience level groups in the domain of clerical work. Subjects were 15 experienced secretaries and 15 secretaries with no more than 1 year of secretarial experience...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Clerical Workers; Comparative Analysis; Measurement Techniques; Models; Multidimensional Scaling
|ERIC ED304603: Qualitative Versus Quantitative Social Support as a Predictor of Depression in the Elderly. - ERIC|
This study examined the relationship between qualitative and quantitative indicators of social support in the prediction of depression. Quantitative indicators were examined with regard to their direct effects on depression as well as their indirect effects through their relationship to perceived social support. Subjects were 301 community-dwelling elderly persons who were age 65 or older and in good physical and mental health...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Depression (Psychology); Older Adults; Predictor Variables; Social Networks; Social Support Groups
|ERIC ED327814: Ecological Fallacy in Reading Acquisition Research: Masking Constructive Processes of the Learner. - ERIC|
A study examined whether conclusions about constructive processes in reading based on analysis of group data were consistent with those based on an analysis of individual data. Subjects, selected from a larger sample of 45 first grade students who had participated in a longitudinal study on acquisition of linguistic procedures for printed words, were from a variety of ethnic and cultural backgrounds and were relatively homogeneous in socioeconomic indicators...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Data Analysis; Grade 1; Primary Education; Reading Processes; Reading Research; Research Methodology
|ERIC ED325531: Common Factor Analysis or Components Analysis: An Update on an Old Debate. - ERIC|
Both common factor analysis and components analysis are useful techniques for reducing the number of variables in a data set or for identifying underlying covariance structures that exist among a set of variables. Although researchers have for some years debated the appropriateness of selecting one of these methods over the other, components analysis has traditionally been the dominant strategy among educational researchers...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Elementary Secondary Education; Factor Analysis; Literature Reviews; Research Methodology; Statistical Analysis; Teachers
|ERIC ED318940: A Study of Self-Esteem in Adopted Non-adopted Adolescents. - ERIC|
This study tested the hypothesis that adopted adolescents have lower self-esteem than do non-adopted adolescents. Male and female students (N=159) between the ages of 18 and 22 were conveniently sampled from college undergraduate populations. Forty-four of the participants reported adoptive status. Each participant completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and a personal data sheet. A multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between the dependent variable (scores obt...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Adolescents; Adoption; College Students; Comparative Analysis; Higher Education; Parenting Styles; Self Esteem
|ERIC ED319805: Implementing Variable Selection Techniques in Regression. - ERIC|
Variable selection techniques in stepwise regression analysis are discussed. In stepwise regression, variables are added or deleted from a model in sequence to produce a final "good" or "best" predictive model. Stepwise computer programs are discussed and four different variable selection strategies are described. These strategies include the forward method, backward method, forward stepwise method, and backward stepwise method...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Computer Software; Decision Making; Methods Research; Multiple Regression Analysis
|ERIC ED339755: Four Methods of Handling Missing Data with the 1984 General Social Survey. - ERIC|
When survey data are statistically analyzed, many times some of the data is missing. If the missing values are not correctly handled, results of the analysis may be dubious and publication may jeopardize the credibility of the organization preparing the report. This study examined four of the more commonly used methods of handling missing data. The following techniques were compared: (1) listwise deletion; (2) pairwise deletion; (3) mean substitution; and (4) regression imputation of missing dat...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Evaluation Methods; Predictive Measurement; Regression (Statistics); Research Methodology; Sampling; Surveys
|ERIC ED317036: Simulated Oral Proficiency Interviews. ERIC Digest. - ERIC|
The Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) is a semi-direct speaking test that models the format of the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI), an oral proficiency test used by government agencies to assess general speaking proficiency in a second language. The SOPI is a tape-recorded test consisting of six parts. It begins with simple, personal background questions posed on a tape in a simulated initial encounter with a native speaker of the target language...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Language Proficiency; Language Tests; Oral Language; Testing
|ERIC ED335792: Teacher Salary Trends in Minnesota: 1974-1988. A Research Report. - ERIC|
This report analyzes the base salary trends of Minnesota's school teachers over the past two decades. At the statewide level, the report examines teacher salary trends both in nominal dollars and after statistically controlling for price inflation, increasing teacher training and experience, and increasing urbanization of the work force. Salary trends are also analyzed at the substate level, stratifying by geographic regions and by school district type...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Elementary Secondary Education; State Action; Teacher Salaries; Teacher Student Ratio; Trend Analysis
|ERIC ED318466: A Model Program for Computerphobia Reduction. - ERIC|
A 3-year project was undertaken to develop, implement, and evaluate a program to reduce computerphobic reactions among postsecondary education students. The Model Computerphobia Reduction Program was designed to screen potential computerphobic students in their computer courses at the beginning of a semester and invite them to participate in brief skills-acquisition modules (treatment programs). After screening over 1,600 students, nearly 200 students, faculty, and staff of California State Univ...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Anxiety; Attitude Change; Attitude Measures; Comparative Analysis; Desensitization; Higher Education; Microcomputers; Program Evaluation; Questionnaires
|ERIC ED304382: Female Literacy in India: The Urban Dimension. - ERIC|
This paper presents a sociogeographic analysis of female literacy in India and compares literacy rates of females and males in scheduled (reported separately on the census) and nonscheduled (reported as one group on the census) castes. In Indian cities, male literacy is higher than female literacy, and literacy rates are higher for nonscheduled caste females than scheduled caste females. In most cities, the disparity between gender literacy rates is lower, and this is also true within the castes...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Census Figures; Comparative Analysis; Females; Foreign Countries; Human Geography; Literacy; Males; Socioeconomic Status
|ERIC ED341293: Transaction and Interaction in Writing: The Case of Electronic Mail. - ERIC|
Electronic mail (e-mail) messages were examined in terms of the relationship of texts to features of the communicative event itself. A tentative look was taken at how one particular component of the communicative event could explain differences and similarities in different text types as well as within the same type. The assumption was that texts (written or spoken) should be compared with each other indirectly, with reference to the primary purpose of the communicative event, the transmission o...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Electronic Mail; Foreign Countries; Interaction; Interpersonal Communication; Writing Evaluation
|ERIC ED370430: Caracteristiques de trois systemes informatiques de transcription phonetique et graphemique (Characteristics of Three Computer-Based Systems of Phonetic and Graphemic Transcription). - ERIC|
Three computer-based systems for phonetic/graphemic transcription of language are described, compared, and contrasted. The text is entirely in French, with examples given from the French language. The three approaches to transcription are: (1) text entered in standard typography and exiting in phonetic transcription with markers for rhythmic groupings; (2) text entered in poor typography, exiting as for (1) above; and (3) text entered in poor typography, exiting in standard typography...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Authoring Aids (Programming); Comparative Analysis; Computational Linguistics; French; Graphemes; Language Rhythm; Phonetic Transcription; Pronunciation
|ERIC ED329569: Comparison of Two Logistic Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models. Research Report ONR90-8. - ERIC|
Test data generated according to two different multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models were compared at both the item response level and the test score level to determine whether measurable differences between the models could be detected when the data sets were constrained to be equivalent in terms of item "p"-values. The models chosen were the multiplicative multidimensional IRT model (non-compensatory) and a linear multidimensional IRT model (compensatory)...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Ability; Comparative Analysis; Item Response Theory; Mathematical Models; Scores; Test Items
|ERIC ED363110: Intuitive Judgments of Hong Kong Signers about the Relationship of Sign Language Varieties in Hong Kong and Shanghai. - ERIC|
In order to empirically examine the claim that sign language varieties in Hong Kong developed partially from sign language varieties in Shanghai, this paper examines the intuitive judgements of Hong kong signers about the similarities and difference in basic vocabulary items in sign language varieties in Shanghai and in Hong Kong. Specifically, the paper includes a discussion of the type of basic vocabulary to be compared, the data collected from Hong Kong and Shanghai sign language varieties, a...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Diachronic Linguistics; Foreign Countries; Intuition; Language Research; Language Variation; Sign Language; Vocabulary
|ERIC ED357404: Natural versus Classical--A Remarkable Result. - ERIC|
This paper focuses on a speech by Demosthenes, recognized as the foremost orator of the fourth century B.C., and the speeches of environmentalist David Brower, in a search for parallel use of values and myths in their rhetorical approaches. Myths provided a world view, ordered the world into right and wrong conduct and thinking, and created a shared identity or purpose. The analysis identifies a similar emphasis in Demosthenes and Brower on values such as respect for the past, bravery, patriotis...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Communication Research; Comparative Analysis; Higher Education; Mythology; Persuasive Discourse; Speech Communication
|ERIC ED314464: The Detection of DIF: Why There Is No Free Lunch. - ERIC|
Conditional observed score (COS) and latent trait (LT) definitions of differential item functioning (DIF) are explored to determine when they are equivalent. COS methods rely solely on observed measurements, and LT methods model the response to an item as a function of an unobserved hypothetical latent ability or trait. For the case of dichotomous test items, the COS approach defines DIF by population differences in the conditional probabilities of responding correctly to the item, conditioning ...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Equations (Mathematics); Mathematical Models; Scores; Statistical Analysis
|ERIC ED318710: An Analysis of the Comparability of Teacher Salaries to the Earnings of Other College Graduates in the Southeast: 1989 Update. Research Report. - ERIC|
Based on data compiled from the U.S. Census Bureau "Current Population Survey" (March 1989), this report compares the average annual earnings of teachers to the average annual earnings of college graduates in full-time, salaried, nonteaching positions in six states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. In addition to comparing average earnings, the report presents several other comparisons between teachers and other college educated workers, e.g., executive...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Career Choice; College Graduates; Comparative Analysis; Higher Education; Teacher Employment; Teacher Salaries; Teaching (Occupation)
|ERIC ED326752: Similarities and Differences between Contemporary Women and Terman's Gifted Women. - ERIC|
The Terman longitudinal data set examined a variety of variables that shaped the personal and professional achievements of 672 gifted women. While the variables identified in this 60-year study started by Lewis Terman in 1921 are provocative, one must ask whether the predictors identified as meaningful for the Terman women would apply to a group of contemporary women. This study compared responses of 485 contemporary women with the responses of the Terman women to a host of questions covering th...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Achievement; Adults; Comparative Analysis; Educational Attainment; Employment Level; Females; Gifted; Life Satisfaction
|ERIC ED338014: Research Methods in Interlanguage Pragmatics. Technical Report #1. - ERIC|
Methods of data collection are reviewed that were used in 39 studies of interlanguage pragmatics, defined narrowly as the investigation of non-native speakers' comprehension and production of speech acts, and the acquisition of second language-related speech act knowledge. Data collection instruments are distinguished according to the degree to which they constrain informants' responses, and whether they tap speech act perception/comprehension or production...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Data Collection; Interlanguage; Language Research; Pragmatics; Research Methodology; Second Language Learning
|ERIC ED387526: DIF Detection and Description: Mantel-Haenszel and Standardization. - ERIC|
At the Educational Testing Service, the Mantel-Haenszel procedure is used for differential item functioning (DIF) detection, and the standardization procedure is used to describe DIF. This report describes these procedures. First, an important distinction is made between DIF and impact, pointing to the need to compare the comparable. Then, these two contingency table DIF procedures are described in some detail, first in terms of their own origins as DIF procedures, and then from a common framewo...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Distractors (Tests); Identification; Item Bias; Item Response Theory; Mathematical Models; Test Items
|ERIC ED361678: Does Shorter Mean Easier to Understand? A Study of Comprehension of USA Today Information Stories. - ERIC|
A study tested the notion that information stories in "USA Today" are more readable because its editors shorten them by leaving out background details. It also examined whether readers comprehend as much from stories written in "USA Today" style as they do from stories written in the more traditional "New York Times" style. For the Readability Study seven readability formulas were applied to two stories reported in both papers...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Comparative Analysis; Higher Education; News Writing; Newspapers; Readability; Reading Comprehension; Reading Research; Regression (Statistics)
|ERIC ED334486: A Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Two Generations of a Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System--SIGI and SIGI Plus: Technical Report No. 7. - ERIC|
This study examined the comparative impact of two generations of a computer-assisted career guidance system, System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI), and SIGI PLUS, on the career decidedness, vocational identity, and user perceptions of 64 college students. The students were randomly assigned to either SIGI or SIGI PLUS. The Occupational Alternatives Question, and My Vocational Situation were completed during pre- and post-treatment while the SIGI or SIGI PLUS Evaluation Form (a me...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Career Counseling; Career Information Systems; College Students; Comparative Analysis; Computer Assisted Instruction; Higher Education
|ERIC ED367378: The Treatment of the Occult in General Encyclopedias. - ERIC|
This paper is a content analysis of three general encyclopedias, "Encyclopedia Americana" (EA), "Encyclopaedia Brittanica" (EB), and "World Book Encyclopedia" (WBC), which quantifies the treatment of the occult. Entries are selected from each by starting with the article "Occultism" and tracing all cross-references. Cross-references are likewise selected from all cross-referenced terms. Entries are then analyzed statement by statement; each is then placed into one of 21 categories...
Keywords: ERIC Archive; Bias; Comparative Analysis; Content Analysis; Encyclopedias; Indexing; Tables (Data)